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U.S. history:

Early Inhabitants (Pre-1600s)

  • Thousands of years ago – Native American tribes inhabit the continent with diverse cultures and societies.

Colonial Era (1600s – 1770s)

  • 1492 – Christopher Columbus lands in the Americas, sparking European exploration.
  • Early 1600s – English colonists establish settlements like Jamestown (Virginia) and Plymouth (Massachusetts), along with French, Dutch, and Spanish colonies.
  • 1619 – The first enslaved Africans arrive in Virginia, marking the beginning of American chattel slavery.
  • 1700s – The 13 colonies develop unique political and economic identities, with increasing tensions with British rule.

American Revolution (1770s – 1780s)

  • 1775 – The American Revolutionary War begins following events like the Boston Tea Party.
  • 1776 – The Declaration of Independence is signed, declaring freedom from Great Britain.
  • 1783 – The Treaty of Paris ends the war, formally recognizing the United States of America.

Early Republic (1780s – 1860s)

  • 1787 – The U.S. Constitution is drafted and ratified, creating a federal government.
  • 1789 – George Washington becomes the first president.
  • Early 1800s – The Louisiana Purchase nearly doubles the nation’s size.
  • 1812-1815 – War of 1812 with Britain strengthens national identity.
  • 1820s-1850s – Westward expansion leads to conflicts with Native Americans and the rise of slavery debates like the Missouri Compromise.

Civil War and Reconstruction (1860s – 1870s)

  • 1861-1865 – The American Civil War is fought between Northern and Southern states over slavery and states’ rights. The Union prevails.
  • 1863 – The Emancipation Proclamation declares freedom for enslaved people in Confederate states.
  • 1865 – The 13th Amendment abolishes slavery.
  • 1865-1877 – Reconstruction attempts to rebuild the South and grant rights to freedmen, but is ultimately limited.

Industrialization and Urbanization (1870s – 1910s)

  • Late 1800s – The Industrial Revolution transforms the U.S. into an industrial power, leading to rapid urbanization, immigration, and economic inequality.
  • 1890s – The Progressive Era tackles social problems of the Gilded Age with reforms.

World Wars and Global Power (1910s – 1940s)

  • 1917 – The U.S. enters World War I, tipping the scales in favor of the Allies.
  • 1920s – The Roaring Twenties bring economic prosperity and social change, followed by the Great Depression.
  • 1941 – The attack on Pearl Harbor brings the U.S. into World War II, becoming a leading Allied power.
  • 1945 – World War II ends with the U.S. emerging as a global superpower.

Cold War and Civil Rights (1940s – 1990s)

  • 1947 – The Cold War begins as the U.S. and Soviet Union vie for global influence.
  • 1950s – The Civil Rights Movement fights for racial equality, culminating in landmark legislation.
  • 1960s – The Vietnam War divides the nation, while social movements for women’s rights and environmentalism gain momentum.
  • 1980s – The Cold War ends with the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Recent Era (1990s – Present)

  • 1990s – The rise of the internet and globalization transform the economy and society.
  • 2001 – The September 11th attacks usher in the War on Terror.
  • 2008 – The Great Recession leads to economic hardship.
  • 2016 – The election of Donald Trump marks a shift in American politics.
  • 2020s – The U.S. grapples with issues like political polarization, social justice movements, and climate change.